# Convert PyTorch models to Flax#

We will show how to convert PyTorch models to Flax. We will cover convolutions, fc layers, batch norm, and average pooling.

## FC Layers#

Let’s start with fc layers. The only thing to be aware of here is that the PyTorch kernel has shape [outC, inC] and the Flax kernel has shape [inC, outC]. Transposing the kernel will do the trick.

```
t_fc = torch.nn.Linear(in_features=3, out_features=4)
kernel = t_fc.weight.detach().cpu().numpy()
bias = t_fc.bias.detach().cpu().numpy()
# [outC, inC] -> [inC, outC]
kernel = jnp.transpose(kernel, (1, 0))
key = random.key(0)
x = random.normal(key, (1, 3))
variables = {'params': {'kernel': kernel, 'bias': bias}}
j_fc = nn.Dense(features=4)
j_out = j_fc.apply(variables, x)
t_x = torch.from_numpy(np.array(x))
t_out = t_fc(t_x)
t_out = t_out.detach().cpu().numpy()
np.testing.assert_almost_equal(j_out, t_out, decimal=6)
```

## Convolutions#

Let’s now look at 2D convolutions. PyTorch uses the NCHW format and Flax uses NHWC. Consequently, the kernels will have different shapes. The kernel in PyTorch has shape [outC, inC, kH, kW] and the Flax kernel has shape [kH, kW, inC, outC]. Transposing the kernel will do the trick.

```
t_conv = torch.nn.Conv2d(in_channels=3, out_channels=4, kernel_size=2, padding='valid')
kernel = t_conv.weight.detach().cpu().numpy()
bias = t_conv.bias.detach().cpu().numpy()
# [outC, inC, kH, kW] -> [kH, kW, inC, outC]
kernel = jnp.transpose(kernel, (2, 3, 1, 0))
key = random.key(0)
x = random.normal(key, (1, 6, 6, 3))
variables = {'params': {'kernel': kernel, 'bias': bias}}
j_conv = nn.Conv(features=4, kernel_size=(2, 2), padding='valid')
j_out = j_conv.apply(variables, x)
# [N, H, W, C] -> [N, C, H, W]
t_x = torch.from_numpy(np.transpose(np.array(x), (0, 3, 1, 2)))
t_out = t_conv(t_x)
# [N, C, H, W] -> [N, H, W, C]
t_out = np.transpose(t_out.detach().cpu().numpy(), (0, 2, 3, 1))
np.testing.assert_almost_equal(j_out, t_out, decimal=6)
```

## Convolutions and FC Layers#

We have to be careful, when we have a model that uses convolutions followed by fc layers (ResNet, VGG, etc). In PyTorch, the activations will have shape [N, C, H, W] after the convolutions and are then reshaped to [N, C * H * W] before being fed to the fc layers. When we port our weights from PyTorch to Flax, the activations after the convolutions will be of shape [N, H, W, C] in Flax. Before we reshape the activations for the fc layers, we have to transpose them to [N, C, H, W].

Consider this PyTorch model:

```
class TModel(torch.nn.Module):
def __init__(self):
super(TModel, self).__init__()
self.conv = torch.nn.Conv2d(in_channels=3, out_channels=4, kernel_size=2, padding='valid')
self.fc = torch.nn.Linear(in_features=100, out_features=2)
def forward(self, x):
x = self.conv(x)
x = x.reshape(x.shape[0], -1)
x = self.fc(x)
return x
t_model = TModel()
```

Now, if you want to use the weights from this model in Flax, the corresponding Flax model has to look like this:

```
class JModel(nn.Module):
@nn.compact
def __call__(self, x):
x = nn.Conv(features=4, kernel_size=(2, 2), padding='valid', name='conv')(x)
# [N, H, W, C] -> [N, C, H, W]
x = jnp.transpose(x, (0, 3, 1, 2))
x = jnp.reshape(x, (x.shape[0], -1))
x = nn.Dense(features=2, name='fc')(x)
return x
j_model = JModel()
```

The model looks very similar to the PyTorch model, except that we included a transpose operation before reshaping our activations for the fc layer. We can omit the transpose operation if we apply pooling before reshaping such that the spatial dimensions are 1x1.

Other than the transpose operation before reshaping, we can convert the weights the same way as we did before:

```
conv_kernel = t_model.state_dict()['conv.weight'].detach().cpu().numpy()
conv_bias = t_model.state_dict()['conv.bias'].detach().cpu().numpy()
fc_kernel = t_model.state_dict()['fc.weight'].detach().cpu().numpy()
fc_bias = t_model.state_dict()['fc.bias'].detach().cpu().numpy()
# [outC, inC, kH, kW] -> [kH, kW, inC, outC]
conv_kernel = jnp.transpose(conv_kernel, (2, 3, 1, 0))
# [outC, inC] -> [inC, outC]
fc_kernel = jnp.transpose(fc_kernel, (1, 0))
variables = {'params': {'conv': {'kernel': conv_kernel, 'bias': conv_bias},
'fc': {'kernel': fc_kernel, 'bias': fc_bias}}}
key = random.key(0)
x = random.normal(key, (1, 6, 6, 3))
j_out = j_model.apply(variables, x)
# [N, H, W, C] -> [N, C, H, W]
t_x = torch.from_numpy(np.transpose(np.array(x), (0, 3, 1, 2)))
t_out = t_model(t_x)
t_out = t_out.detach().cpu().numpy()
np.testing.assert_almost_equal(j_out, t_out, decimal=6)
```

## Batch Norm#

`torch.nn.BatchNorm2d`

uses `0.1`

as the default value for the `momentum`

parameter while
`nn.BatchNorm`

uses `0.9`

. However, this corresponds to the same computation, because PyTorch multiplies
the estimated statistic with `(1 − momentum)`

and the new observed value with `momentum`

,
while Flax multiplies the estimated statistic with `momentum`

and the new observed value with `(1 − momentum)`

.

```
t_bn = torch.nn.BatchNorm2d(num_features=3, momentum=0.1)
t_bn.eval()
scale = t_bn.weight.detach().cpu().numpy()
bias = t_bn.bias.detach().cpu().numpy()
mean = t_bn.running_mean.detach().cpu().numpy()
var = t_bn.running_var.detach().cpu().numpy()
variables = {'params': {'scale': scale, 'bias': bias},
'batch_stats': {'mean': mean, 'var': var}}
key = random.key(0)
x = random.normal(key, (1, 6, 6, 3))
j_bn = nn.BatchNorm(momentum=0.9, use_running_average=True)
j_out = j_bn.apply(variables, x)
# [N, H, W, C] -> [N, C, H, W]
t_x = torch.from_numpy(np.transpose(np.array(x), (0, 3, 1, 2)))
t_out = t_bn(t_x)
# [N, C, H, W] -> [N, H, W, C]
t_out = np.transpose(t_out.detach().cpu().numpy(), (0, 2, 3, 1))
np.testing.assert_almost_equal(j_out, t_out, decimal=6)
```

## Average Pooling#

`torch.nn.AvgPool2d`

and `nn.avg_pool()`

are compatible when using default parameters.
However, `torch.nn.AvgPool2d`

has a parameter `count_include_pad`

. When `count_include_pad=False`

,
the zero-padding will not be considered for the average calculation. There does not exist a similar
parameter for `nn.avg_pool()`

. However, we can easily implement a wrapper around the pooling
operation. `nn.pool()`

is the core function behind `nn.avg_pool()`

and `nn.max_pool()`

.

```
def avg_pool(inputs, window_shape, strides=None, padding='VALID'):
"""
Pools the input by taking the average over a window.
In comparison to nn.avg_pool(), this pooling operation does not
consider the padded zero's for the average computation.
"""
assert len(window_shape) == 2
y = nn.pool(inputs, 0., jax.lax.add, window_shape, strides, padding)
counts = nn.pool(jnp.ones_like(inputs), 0., jax.lax.add, window_shape, strides, padding)
y = y / counts
return y
key = random.key(0)
x = random.normal(key, (1, 6, 6, 3))
j_out = avg_pool(x, window_shape=(2, 2), strides=(1, 1), padding=((1, 1), (1, 1)))
t_pool = torch.nn.AvgPool2d(kernel_size=2, stride=1, padding=1, count_include_pad=False)
# [N, H, W, C] -> [N, C, H, W]
t_x = torch.from_numpy(np.transpose(np.array(x), (0, 3, 1, 2)))
t_out = t_pool(t_x)
# [N, C, H, W] -> [N, H, W, C]
t_out = np.transpose(t_out.detach().cpu().numpy(), (0, 2, 3, 1))
np.testing.assert_almost_equal(j_out, t_out, decimal=6)
```

## Transposed Convolutions#

`torch.nn.ConvTranspose2d`

and `nn.ConvTranspose`

are not compatible.
`nn.ConvTranspose`

is a wrapper around `jax.lax.conv_transpose`

which computes a fractionally strided convolution,
while `torch.nn.ConvTranspose2d`

computes a gradient based transposed convolution. Currently, there is no
implementation of a gradient based transposed convolution is `Jax`

. However, there is a pending pull request
that contains an implementation.

To load `torch.nn.ConvTranspose2d`

parameters into Flax, we need to use the `transpose_kernel`

arg in Flax’s
`nn.ConvTranspose`

layer.

```
# padding is inverted
torch_padding = 0
flax_padding = 1 - torch_padding
t_conv = torch.nn.ConvTranspose2d(in_channels=3, out_channels=4, kernel_size=2, padding=torch_padding)
kernel = t_conv.weight.detach().cpu().numpy()
bias = t_conv.bias.detach().cpu().numpy()
# [inC, outC, kH, kW] -> [kH, kW, outC, inC]
kernel = jnp.transpose(kernel, (2, 3, 1, 0))
key = random.key(0)
x = random.normal(key, (1, 6, 6, 3))
variables = {'params': {'kernel': kernel, 'bias': bias}}
# ConvTranspose expects the kernel to be [kH, kW, inC, outC],
# but with `transpose_kernel=True`, it expects [kH, kW, outC, inC] instead
j_conv = nn.ConvTranspose(features=4, kernel_size=(2, 2), padding=flax_padding, transpose_kernel=True)
j_out = j_conv.apply(variables, x)
# [N, H, W, C] -> [N, C, H, W]
t_x = torch.from_numpy(np.transpose(np.array(x), (0, 3, 1, 2)))
t_out = t_conv(t_x)
# [N, C, H, W] -> [N, H, W, C]
t_out = np.transpose(t_out.detach().cpu().numpy(), (0, 2, 3, 1))
np.testing.assert_almost_equal(j_out, t_out, decimal=6)
```